Global concern for environmental issues and disaster is being increasingly realised, that if environmental degradation continues unbated and the survival of mankind will be at stake.  Therefore, it is necessary for us to understand the environment and its issues for the protection the earth.  Let us discuss briefly about the enviroment and its issues.

     Environment is the surroundings of both living organisms and non-living organisms, in which they live and interact.  It includes both natural and man made. Natural environment is in the form of biosphere that includes lithosphere(land),hydrosphere(water) and atmosphere(air) gives life support to all living organisms.

The major environmental issues are classified as follows :
  1.  Pollution
  2.  Deforestation
  3.  Green house effect & global warming
  4.  Acid rain
  5.  Ozone depletion
  6.  Disaster
  7.  Urbanization
Pollution :
     Pollution is one of the increasing threat to the mankind.  Every day tonnes of harmful wastes go into the air, water & soil.  And the pollution becomes an inseparable part in our day to day life.

The pollution is classified as follows:

                 -Air pollution.
                 -Water pollution.
                 - Soil pollution.

Air Pollution:
     Air pollution is a major environmental problem causing adverse effect on human beings and natural ecosystems. The major reasons for the air pollution are industries,automobiles and the burning of fuels. And the list of pollutants are smoke,dust, noise,heat, cold, radio activity and excess radiation.

Water Pollution:
     Water is the important source for human life.  But, now-a-days  water getting polluted by the contaminated water from the industries ,hospital & and by throwing the wastes into river,pond etc. Water pollution is the main reason for the spreading of dangerous diseases.

Soil Pollution:
     Soil is the important source for all the living organisms,crops, plants,animals,for building houses etc. Therefore, life on earth is not possible without soil.  And the soil is also gets polluted by the use of chemical fertilizer, throwing plastics etc.

     Deforestation is the processing of clearing the forest for cultivation, housing, grazing etc .  The main reason for the deforestation is the increase in population growth.  The deforestation leads to the soil erosion,erratic rainfall, increasing temperature,health hazards etc.

Green house effect and global warming  :
     Carbon-di-oxide,methane,CFCs,nitrous oxide and ground level ozone gases in the atmosphere enables to form a 'green house' for earth by retaining the heat from earth. Increase in carbon-di-oxide in the atmosphere is a major challenge for the mankind.  Carbon di oxide is a natural constituent in atmosphere, inspite of its small proportion, it plays a major role in the atmosphere. On the account of industrialization,fossil fuel consumption is growing, results in the increase of carbondioxide concentration in the atmosphere, it aborbs the heat radiations and lets sun rays to earth but retains the heat radiation from earth. Thus the 'global warming'  takes place. Due to the burning of the fossil fuels and the deforestation increases the quantity of green house gases in the atmossphere.  The release of chloro floro carbon(CFC) from the refrigerators has also aggrevated the green house effect.  If the  increase of green house gases continues, it will leads to the rise of global temperature which results in the melting of the polar ice caps.  And it will leads to the rise of sea level, which will affect coastal development and the economic productivity etc.  Warmer climate will promote evaporation of water and increase the cloudiness and rainfall.  And the tropical cyclones will become more intensive and their ferocity will increase. Green house effect will sweep changes in the biosphere.

Acid rain :
     The term 'acid rain' is used describe all forms of precipitation,rain,snow,sleet,dew which is more acidic than normal.  Acid rain is a man-made phenomenon.  Emission of sulphur di oxide, oxides of nitrogen & carbon di oxide are the main contributors for the atmospheric acidification and dissolves in the atmosphere moisture forming the sulphuric and nitric acids which makes rain acidic. Acid rain often produce irreversible changes.  It contaminates the surface water, makes the soil acidic, makes the corroding effect on the plant leaves.

Ozone depletion :
     Earth is surrounded by atmosphere.  In the atmosphere between 15 to 50 kms, there is a protective layer called ozone , which protects the earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays of sun. The UV rays are the main cause for the skin cancer.  The major threat to the ozone layer is the chloro floro carbons(CFC) which is a human made carbons.  Once the CFCs reach the stratosphere, the chlorine atoms of the CFCs do damage.  The UV radiation in the stratosphere is strong enough to split the chlorine atoms of the CFC molecule.  The free chlorine atom joins with ozone,resulting in the spliting of the oxygen atom.  Thus the ozone molecule(o3) is being reduced to the plain oxygen(o2) and the chlorine atom joining with split of oxygen to form chlorine monoxide.  It is calculated that a single chlorine atom can able destroy upto 10,000 ozone molecule.

Disaster :
     Disaster is defined as " Any occurrance that causes damage,ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health on a large scale, sufficient to warrant an extraoridinary response from outside the affected community".

The disaster is classified into two types.  They are  1. Natural disasters  2. Manmade disasters

Natural disasters :
     The disasters which are caused by the natural forces is called 'natural disasters'.  The natural disasters are earthquakes,volcanic eruptions,floods,droughts etc.

Manmade disasters :
     The disasters caused by man due to his negligence,ignorance and carelessness are called as 'manmade disaster'. Example : pollution.

Urbanization :
     The natural increase of population in cities and migration of people from rural areas to cities in search of gainful employment and better amenities of life results in 'Urbanization'.  The adverse effects of urbanization reflects mainly through the deforestation,pollution,energy crisis,health hazards etc.

Conclusion :
     Our enviroment can be preserved only creating the awareness among common people about the enviromental issues and its effects on our day-to-day life.  It is our each one's responsibility to safeguard our environment for the future generations of the world.

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